Risk of composite CV endpoints combining all ischaemic CV events and heart failure were similar for individual and combined TOF doses versus TNFi. The totality of CV risk (MACE-8 plus VTE) was higher with TOF 10mg twice daily versus TNFi. Buch et al conducted a post-hoc analysis on the ORAL Surveillance trial to assess risk across extended MACE endpoints in RA patients treated with either TOF 5mg, TOF 10mg, or TNFi.

The authors highlighted a significantly greater clinical remission rate at Week 52 for vedolizumab SC versus placebo in patients with moderately to severely active CD. This study aimed to report results from VISIBLE 2 which evaluated a new SC vedolizumab formulation as maintenance treatment in adults with moderately to severely active CD.

Guselkumab induced greater clinical and endoscopic improvements in patients with Crohn’s disease versus placebo, with a favourable safety profile in this Phase 2 trial by Sandborn, et al.

Maintenance treatment with risankizumab was associated with an improvement in coprimary endpoints of clinical remission and endoscopic response in patients with Crohn’s disease compared with placebo.

Risankizumab was effective and well tolerated as induction therapy in patients with moderately to severely active Crohn’s disease, though there were no significant differences in efficacy between 600mg and 1200mg doses.

Upadacitinib Induction and Maintenance Therapy for Crohn’s Disease

N Engl J Med 2023; 388:1966–1980 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2212728

Upadacitinib was associated with higher percentages of remission and endoscopic response regardless of previous failure of biologic therapy. This paper reports the Phase 3 efficacy and safety results of upadacitinib in patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn’s disease.

Ozanimod as induction therapy and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis

N Engl J Med 2021;385:1280–91 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2033617

Patients receiving ozanimod displayed a significant improvement in clinical response and all secondary endpoints during both the 10-week induction and 52-week maintenance study periods. Percentage of patients achieving clinical remission at Weeks 10 and 52 was the primary endpoint.

Etrasimod demonstrated significant efficacy in achieving clinical remission, and was well tolerated compared to placebo in an induction and maintenance therapy.

Mirikizumab as induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis

N Engl J Med 2023;388(26):2444–2455 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2207940

Mirikizumab was more effective than placebo in inducing and maintaining clinical remission in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. D’Haens, et al. also noted that opportunistic infections and cancer developed in a small number of mirikizumab-treated patients.

The results of two induction studies (UC1 and UC2) and a maintenance study (UC3) show upadacitinib superiority to placebo in treating ulcerative colitis (UC). Rates of clinical remission were significantly higher for all upadacitinib doses versus placebo in all three studies.