A disease-associated gene desert directs macrophage inflammation through ETS2

Nature 2024 doi: 10.1038/s41586-024-07501-1 Epub ahead of print

Stankey, et al. used functional genomics to show that the ETS2 gene is a central regulator of human inflammatory macrophages. They also found that ETS2 was disrupted by JAK inhibitors and MEK inhibitors, with multiple MEK inhibitors being shown to downregulate ETS2-target genes.

Keywords:

May 2024

Upadacitinib Induction and Maintenance Therapy for Crohn’s Disease

N Engl J Med 2023; 388:1966–1980 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2212728

Upadacitinib was associated with higher percentages of remission and endoscopic response regardless of previous failure of biologic therapy. This paper reports the Phase 3 efficacy and safety results of upadacitinib in patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn’s disease.

Ozanimod as induction therapy and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis

N Engl J Med 2021;385:1280–91 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2033617

Patients receiving ozanimod displayed a significant improvement in clinical response and all secondary endpoints during both the 10-week induction and 52-week maintenance study periods. Percentage of patients achieving clinical remission at Weeks 10 and 52 was the primary endpoint.

Mirikizumab as induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis

N Engl J Med 2023;388(26):2444–2455 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2207940

Mirikizumab was more effective than placebo in inducing and maintaining clinical remission in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. D’Haens, et al. also noted that opportunistic infections and cancer developed in a small number of mirikizumab-treated patients.

Tofacitinib as induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis

N Engl J Med. 2017 May 4;376(18):1723-1736. DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa1606910

Tofacitinib, at a dose of 10 mg twice daily, was more effective than placebo for induction of remission and mucosal healing in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. Furthermore, maintenance therapy with tofacitinib, at a dose of either 5 mg or 10 mg twice daily, was more effective than placebo in sustaining remission and mucosal healing.

April 2024

The 2023 EULAR recommendations provided an updated consensus on the pharmacological management of PsA with a new overarching principle and recommendation for 2023. Recent MOA safety data emphasised the importance of patient-specific benefit-risk profiling in JAKi therapy, and extra-musculoskeletal (MSK) manifestations related to PsA should be considered during drug selection.

Phase 3 trials of ixekizumab in moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis

N Engl J Med 2016;375:345–56. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1512711

Gordon, et al. pool the results of UNCOVER-1, UNCOVER-2, and UNCOVER-3 to show that ixekizumab increases the proportion of patients achieving an sPGA score of 0/1 or PASI 75 versus placebo. Adverse events related to ixekizumab treatment included neutropenia, candidal infections, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Phase 3 studies comparing brodalumab with ustekinumab in psoriasis

N Engl J Med 2015;373:1318–28. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1503824

Brodalumab treatment resulted in a rapid reduction in the signs and symptoms of PsO. The median time to a PASI 75 response with 210 mg of brodalumab Q2W was 4 weeks, approximately twice as fast as the median time to a response with ustekinumab.

Bimekizumab was more efficacious than ustekinumab and placebo in the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Previous bimekizumab Phase 2 clinical studies have shown both rapid and durable clinical improvements in skin clearance, as well as a safety profile in line with expectations from this MoA. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bimekizumab in moderate to severe plaque PsO over 1 year compared with both placebo and ustekinumab.

Bimekizumab versus adalimumab in plaque psoriasis

N Engl J Med 2021; 385:130–41. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2102388

Bimekizumab was noninferior and superior to adalimumab with respect to PASI 90 response and IGA score at Week 16. Bimekizumab is a promising IL-17A/F inhibitor that has shown clinical improvement in PsO patients compared to placebo and other IL inhibitors. Warren et al. compared the safety and efficacy of bimekizumab with adalimumab in a 56-week double-blind trial.