Genetic variants in TNFα, NLRP3, MYD88, and FcRγ genes were associated with a response to TNFi, when assessing several inflammatory diseases together. Al-Sofi et al. conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genetic markers and their response to biologics in psoriasis, PsA, RA, IBD, and across all chronic inflammatory diseases together.

More RA patients on upadacitinib versus adalimumab achieved clinical remission, LDA, and DAS28 (CRP) <2.6. Radiographic progression was less with continuous upadacitinib versus continuous adalimumab. Upadacitinib showed similar safety to adalimumab, with higher incidences of HZ, lymphopenia, CPK elevation, hepatic disorder and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

June 2024

Goldman, et al. conducted a pharmacovigilance study to evaluate the cardiovascular safety of JAK inhibitors in RA patients. The study demonstrated an increase in the reporting of VTE, stroke, and ischemic heart disease in patients treated with JAK inhibitor compared to bDMARDs, especially within the first year of treatment. This suggests a class effect of JAK inhibitors on cardiovascular risk, emphasising the need for ongoing surveillance and proactive cardiovascular risk management.

Burmester, et al. found that long-term filgotinib exposure was well tolerated in patients with moderate-to-severe active RA, with a stable rate of TEAEs over time. However, potential dose-dependent relationships for herpes zoster infections, malignancies and all-cause mortality were observed in patients aged ≥65 years, indicating the potential impact of age on the safety profile of Filgotinib. Therefore, some patients aged ≥65 years may benefit from the filgotinib 100 mg dose option.

May 2024

Results of this analysis by Hernández-Cruz, et al. show that infections, herpes zoster and gastrointestinal AEs in patients with RA tended to be more frequent with JAKi treatment versus TNFi. They also found that treatment persistence was similar with JAKi and TNFi in patients with RA and axSpA, and only slightly higher for TNFi in patients with PsA.

The 5-year benefit-risk profile for upadacitinib in RA remains favourable, with clinical outcomes improved or maintained through Week 260. No new safety findings were identified during the LTE. Results remained consistent with earlier analyses of SELECT-NEXT.

Risk of composite CV endpoints combining all ischaemic CV events and heart failure were similar for individual and combined TOF doses versus TNFi. The totality of CV risk (MACE-8 plus VTE) was higher with TOF 10mg twice daily versus TNFi. Buch et al conducted a post-hoc analysis on the ORAL Surveillance trial to assess risk across extended MACE endpoints in RA patients treated with either TOF 5mg, TOF 10mg, or TNFi.

April 2024

Fleischmann, et al. found that patients who switched from adalimumab to upadacitinib and vice versa following lack of improvement showed improvements in disease activity measures and functional outcomes through 228 weeks.

Risk of venous thromboembolism with tofacitinib versus tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in cardiovascular risk-enriched rheumatoid arthritis patients

Arthritis Rheumatol 2024 doi: 10.1002/art.42846 Epub ahead of print

This post hoc analysis of ORAL Surveillance showed that incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) events was higher in patients with RA treated with tofacitinib (10>5mg BID) versus TNFi. Across treatments, VTE risk factors (age, BMI, and VTE history) were aligned with previous studies in the general RA population.

March 2024

This study by Rech, et al. shows that 6-month treatment with abatacept was associated with a decrease in MRI inflammation, clinical symptoms, and risk of RA development in participants at high risk. The effects of the intervention persist through a 1-year drug-free observation phase.